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Research Guides

Alternative Literature Searching

A guide for live animal researchers finding alternative research methods to reduce, refine, and replace their use of animals.

3R Databases

In addition to common literature databases (e.g., Medline, Google Scholar, Agricultural DB), below is a list of recommended databases that specialize on addressing the 3R’s.


ALTWEB - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

The Global clearinghouse for information on alternatives to animal testing


NORINA - A Norwegian Inventory of Alternatives

Over 3,500 audiovisual aids that may be used as alternatives or supplements to the use of animals


HSVMA - Humane Society Veterinary Medical Association alternatives database

Education Database contains thousands of entries of alternatives to the harming or killing of animals for many levels of education.


TSAR - European Commission Tracking System for Alternative methods towards Regulatory acceptance

European Commission joint research center, TSAR tracks the progress of alternative, non-animal methods, for testing chemicals or biological agents such as vaccines towards acceptance as a recognised test method for use in various sectors


ALTBIB – United States National Library of Medicine Alternatives to Animal Testing

Resources for Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing



InterNICHE network focuses on animal use and alternatives within biological science, medical and veterinary medical education.


AnimAlt ZEBET -  German Centre for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R)

The database AnimAlt ZEBET includes high quality, scientifically recognised alternatives to standard animal tests in the field of toxicology and pharmacology as well as fundamental research.


DB-ALM - EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM)

European Commission European Science Hub. The DB-ALM is a public, factual database service that provides evaluated information on development and applications of advanced and alternative methods to animal experimentation in the field of biomedical sciences and toxicology for research or regulatory purposes.


AWI - Animal Welfare Institute Enrichment and Refinement Databases

Database on Refinement of Housing, Handling, and Husbandry and Environmental Enrichment for Animals in Research